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University of Southampton Two Period Endowment Model Essay

University of Southampton Two Period Endowment Model Essay

Question Description

I’m working on a history writing question and need a sample draft to help me understand better.

Hi all!!

This is a simple History writing assignmnet. I will post 3 questions and I want 3 seperate answers. The answers doesnt have to be very long. I need at least 350 words for each essay. The topics are not very complicated, and I will also add some sample answers that you can read and get an idea from. Please do not copy from the sample answers. The sample answers are literally the answers to the questions, they have to be paraphrased professionally and you can also use outside sources as well. This is a very simple writing assignment. Around 1100-1300(350 for each question) is ideal.

Essay 1

What is imperialism? Why did European countries pursue colonies in Asia and Africa? What were some of the regions occupied by European powers and why?

Essay 1 sample answers;

– Throughout history, many civilizations grew into great empires through the policy of imperialism. Imperialism a policy of extending a country’s power and influence through diplomacy or military force. It occurs when a powerful nation takes over or dominates a weaker nation or region by using political, economic, or military. Between the 18th to 20th centuries, European nations (Great Britain, France, Germany, among others) expanded their borders across Africa, Asia, and the Pacific. The reasons why European nations pursued colonies in Asia and Africa were driven by a serie of motives: the Industrial Revolution created a rising need and demand for natural resources to fuel their economies, particularly, industries. Raw materials like coal, iron, and rubber were in high demand within European nations. Some of them did not have an abundance of raw materials and looked to other countries to find them. Expanding outside of its borders also allowed European countres like England, France or Germany to enter foreign markets that they needed to sell their industrial goods. Imperialism was also influenced by nationalism, a sense of pride in one’s country. European peoples were very proud of their countries and their accomplishments reached and it created a sense of competition among European powers in order to show their power and prestige around the world. These rivalries heated tensions between European countries and conflicts began to spread, such as the Crimean War, Franco-Prussian Wars, Boers Wars and finally, the World War I. Imperialism was also cultural. When European powers took over foreign lands, they felt superior to the natives they dominated. They looked down on them and felt that they needed to bring western culture and “civilize” and educate them. Religion was an important part of imperialism. Among some of the regions invaded and occupied by the European powers, such as Great Britain, include the Indian Subcontinent (India, Pakistan, Bagladesh, Bhutan, Nepal, Maldives, Sri Lanka). Known as the ”jewel crown of the Empire,” they came to India for raw materials as spices, silk, cotton, indigo dye, tea and opium. France annexed Indochine (Vietnam, Cambodia, Laos) for natural resources as well as to expand its growing empire whereas Germany, right after being unified by Otto von Bismarck, acquired colonies in East Africa, Southwest Africa in the Pacific to protect trade, safeguard raw materials and export markets, and take opportunities for capital investment.

– Imperialism is the domination by one country or people over another group of people this changed the world during the later half of that century.. From the sixteenth to the early nineteenth century, an era dominated by what is termed Old Imperialism, European nations sought trade routes with the Far East, explored the New World, and established settlements in North and South America as well as in Southeast Asia. They set up trading posts and gained footholds on the coasts of Africa and China and worked closely with the local rulers to ensure the protection of European economic interests. Their influence, however, was limited. In the Age of New Imperialism that began in the 1870s, European states established empires mainly in Africa, but also in Asia and the Middle East. Imperialism is a policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries poitically, socially, and economically. European nations pursued an aggressive expansion policy that was motivated by economic needs that were created by the Industrial Revolution. Between 1870 and 1914, Europe went through a “Second Industrial Revolution,” which quickened the pace of change as science, technology, and industry spurred economic growth. Improvements in steel production revolutionized shipbuilding and transportation. The development of the railroad, the internal combustion engine, and electrical power generation contributed to the growing industrial economies of Europe and their need to seek new avenues of expansion. The expansion policy was also motivated by political needs that associated empire building with national greatness, and social and religious reasons that promoted the superiority of Western society over “backward” societies. Through the use of direct military force, economic spheres of influence, and annexation, European countries dominated the continents of Africa and Asia. By 1914, Great Britain controlled the largest number of colonies, and the phrase, “the sun never sets on the British Empire,” described the vastness of its holdings. Imperialism had consequences that affected the colonial nations, Europe, and the world. It also led to increased competition among nations and to conflicts that would disrupt world peace in 1914.

Essay 2

What were the causes of World War I? Who were the major powers involved in this conflict? Why were they fighting? What was the result of the war?

Essay 2 sample answers;

– The main immediate cause of World War I was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, who was heir to the throne. A month after his assassination, Austria declared war on Serbia. The major powers involved in WWI were Austria and Germany and Russia, France, and Great Britain. The US got involved towards the end for a short time, but once the US declares war, WWI is ended a few weeks later. These alliances were also another cause of the world war. For example, when Germany declares war on Russia, France mobilizes for war to protect their investments in Russia. It became a ripple effect, where many countries began declaring war in order to honor their alliances. Imperialism was also another cause of WWI. There was increased competition in Europe due to the desire to imperialize, which led to an increase in confrontation. The arms race and increased militarism throughout Europe was another big factor that led to the war. During the war, there was the use of airplanes, submarines, chemical weapons, flame guns, and machine weapons, along with the introduction of trench warfare. All these countries were fighting over the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand and in order to honor their alliances and protect their investments. The war ended soon after Woodrow Wilson convinced Congress to declare war. There was a Paris Peace Conference that took place over the course of months. Twenty-seven nations were represented, but the big four were Woodrow Wilson, who represented the US, George Clemenceau of France, David Lloyd George of Great Britain, and Vittorio Orlando of Italy. This peace conference took so long because they were basically reshaping Europe. There was also a Treaty of Versailles, where Germany was forced to take all responsibility for the war. Germany gave up territory to Belgium, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, and Poland. Germany also lost its overseas colonies and was forced to demilitarize. An allied military force, which was paid for by Germany, was no to occupy the west bank of the Rhine River for fifteen years. France was given control over some coal fields in Germany’s Saar Valley for fifteen years. And finally, Germany was given a bill of thirty-three billion dollars. With no idea how to pay it off, Germany decided to just print more money, but this then causes its money to lose any sort of value, which destroyed their economy.

– The assassination of heir to the throne, Austrian archduke Franz Ferdinand by a Serbian nationlist on June 28, 1914, was the spark that started World War I. A month after his death Austria declares war on serbia in response to the murder to of Franz Ferdinand and his wife. M.A.I.N is another one of the main causes leading to world war I, it stands for Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, Nationalism. Militarism caused them to race in competition based on rivalry and mistrust of neighboring countries. Also, Germany attempted to compete with Britain in a naval race by constructing more and more ships. By 1914, Germany had 100 battleships and two million trained soldiers. Alliances were formed to keep the balance of power between countries in place. The Triple Alliance was established in 1882 by Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy. In 1907, France, the United Kingdom, and Russia formed the Triple Entente. Imperialism happens when a country grows its power and riches by gaining control of other regions, generally without directly conquering or resettling them causing there to be a lot of rivalry and conflict. Nationalism is when someone has an intense loyalty to their country which can sometimes give off the impression that some countries were greater than others. As each country tried to prove their power, dominance, and wealth. It led to the war becoming more complicated and lengthy. President Woodrow Wilson addressed a joint session of Congress, requesting a declaration of war against Germany. Wilson made the decision to lead the United States into World War I because Germany was starting to attack American submarines and sinking cargo ships in 1917. On January 8, 1918, the President of the United States Woodrow Wilson stood before congress and made a speech where he proposed the Fourteen points. The fourteen points is a plan that Woodrow Wilson made that would not only help end world war one but prevent another one from happening. Russia was angered by Austria-Hungary’s attack on Sarajevo and did not want Austria-Hungary to expand into the balkans. As a result, Russia pledged to join Serbia if Austria-Hungary invaded. The major powers involved in WWI were the Central Powers which included Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire. They fought against the Allied Powers, the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Italy, Romania, Japan, and the United States. During World War I there were immense amounts of bloodshed and death, due to military developments and the horrors of trench warfare. The fighting finally ended on November 11, 1918, Germany formally surrendered and all nations agreed to cease fighting while the treaty was being negotiated. With the signing of the Treaty of Versailles on June 28, 1919, the war between Germany and the Allies came to an end, officially ending the war. The Treaty of Versailles forced Germany to relinquish the colonies of Asia, Africa, France, Poland, and the pacific. They were forced to reduce the size of their military, Germany was also forced to pay war reparations to the allied countries that they wronged. Germany also had to take responsibility and accept that they caused the war.

Essay 3

Discuss the rise of Nazism in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s. How did Adolf Hitler become so popular that he was able to achieve a position of power? To what extent was the humiliation of the Versailles Treaty a factor in his rise to power? After becoming Chancellor of Germany, how did Hitler consolidate his grip on power? What kind of world did Hitler and the Nazis envision?

Essay 3 sample answers;

After WWI, Germany was left in shambles. They were blamed for the war, and owed millions of dollars. Hitler, who could never really find his place in life, used this as a crutch to get to power. Angry at his past failures, his disability caused from the first world war, and angered at how horrible life in Germany had become, he began preaching. He was arrested for trying to start a revolt. After nine months in prison, he released Mein Kampf, a novel describing his twisted views on race and social hierarchy. He saw Aryan Germans as the elite human species, while Jews, Gypsies, Homosexuals, and other minorities were subhuman. Although he could not overthrow the government, he was still put into power through legal means. He ran for president and lost to Paul von Hindenburg. However, Hindenburg appointed Hitler to be Chancellor of Germany. With this platform, he began giving speeches across the country. While his ideas were absurd, his anger, passion, and ability to rally a crowd soon gave him many followers. People saw him as their savior; he was going to bring back Germany and make it the most powerful nation in the world. Additionally, he started to rebuild and strengthen their military, as well as strengthen the police force. This helped to restart the economy and gave many Germans hope. After WWI, no one wanted to fight. The Treaty of Versailles ended with many countries agreeing to not go to war again. Hitler knew that he could push the boundaries and no one was going to attack him for it. He started by invading Poland and was successful. Additionally, he made a secret alliance with Russia and Italy. While Britain and France declared war on Germany soon after, their militaries were wildly unprepared. They stalled for months to rebuild their militaries and train new recruits. Meanwhile, Hitler continued conquering Europe. Within a year, most of Europe was under the Nazi’s control. The Nazi Party wanted worldwide control and power. Hitler made the mistake of invading Russia. Not only did he break his alliance, Russia is too large to invade. His plan failed and the Russians turned on Germany. Eventually, the United States joined the war, helping Britain, France, and Russia defeat Germany and rescue millions of people.

Discuss the rise of Nazism in Germany in the 1920s and 1930s.

The Nazi Party was one of a number of right-wing extremist political groups that emerged in Germany following World War I. Beginning with the onset of the Great Depression it rose rapidly from obscurity to political prominence, becoming the largest party in the German parliament in 1932. The Nazi Party’s meteoric rise to power began in 1930, when it attained 107 seats in Germany’s parliament, the Reichstag. In July 1932, the Nazi Party became the largest political party in the Reichstag with 230 representatives In the final years of the Weimar Republic (1930 to 1933), the government ruled by emergency decree because it could not attain a parliamentary majority. Political and economic instability, coupled with voter dissatisfaction with the status quo, benefitted the Nazi Party. As a result of the Nazis’ mass support, German president Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler chancellor on January 30, 1933. His appointment paved the way to the Nazi dictatorship after Hindenburg’s death in August 1934. For the Nazis, so-called “German blood” determined whether one was considered a citizen. The Nazis believed that citizenship should not only bestow on a person certain rights (such as voting, running for office, or owning a newspaper); it also came with the guarantee of a job, food, and land on which to live. Those without “German blood” were not citizens and therefore should be depri

How did Adolf Hitler become so popular that he was able to achieve a position of power?

Adolf Hitler was appointed chancellor of Germany in 1933 following a series of electoral victories by the Nazi Party. He ruled absolutely until his death by suicide in April 1945. Upon achieving power, Hitler smashed the nation’s democratic institutions and transformed Germany into a war state intent on conquering Europe for the benefit of the so-called Aryan race. His invasion of Poland on September 1, 1939, triggered the European phase of World War II.

Hitler rose to power through the Nazi Party, an organization he forged after returning as a wounded veteran from the annihilating trench warfare of World War I. He and other patriotic Germans were outraged and humiliated by the harsh terms of the Treaty of Versailles, which the Allies compelled the new German government, the Weimar Republic, to accept along with an obligation to pay $33 billion in war reparations. Germany also had to give up its prized overseas colonies and surrender valued parcels of home territory to France and Poland. The German army was radically downsized and the nation forbidden to have submarines or an air force. “We shall squeeze the German lemon until the pips squeak!” explained one British official.

Hitler, a mesmerizing public speaker, addressed political meetings in Munich calling for a new German order to replace what he saw as an incompetent and inefficient democratic regime. This New Order was distinguished by an authoritarian political system based on a leadership structure in which authority flowed downward from a supreme national leader. In the new Germany, all citizens would unselfishly serve the state, or Volk; democracy would be abolished; and individual rights sacrificed for the good of the führer state. The ultimate aim of the Nazi Party was to seize power through Germany’s parliamentary system, install Hitler as dictator, and create a community of racially pure Germans loyal to their führer, who would lead them in a campaign of racial cleansing and world conquest.

To what extent was the humiliation of the Versailles Treaty a factor in his rise to power?

Due to this, the countries had to suffer from a failed economy, starvation and war debt, there was no strong government which was capable of solving the problems of the people nationwide. This led to the rise of the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler in Germany and Mussolini in Italy. Perhaps the most humiliating portion of the treaty for defeated Germany was Article 231, commonly known as the “War Guilt Clause,” which forced the German nation to accept complete responsibility for initiating World War I. Germany was required to make enormous reparation payments.

After becoming Chancellor of Germany, how did Hitler consolidate his grip on power?

The Night of the Long Knives (in addition to Hindenburg’s death a few months later) helped Hitler and the Nazi Party to consolidate absolute power in Germany by removing their political opposition. When Hindenburg died the following year, Hitler took the titles of führer, chancellor, and commander in chief of the army. He expanded the army tremendously, reintroduced conscription, and began developing a new air force all violations of the Treaty of Versailles.

What kind of world did Hitler and the Nazis envision?

The ultimate aim of the Nazi Party was to seize power through Germany’s parliamentary system, install Hitler as dictator, and create a community of racially pure Germans loyal to their führer, who would lead them in a campaign of racial cleansing and world conquest.

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