I’m working on a psychology writing question and need an explanation to help me study.
Chapter 2 of the text presents the evolution of the community counseling model beginning with the 1910’s.
For this discussion:
- Select and briefly discuss at least one important happening in the evolution of community counseling for each of four time periods. Include the 1920’s – 1930’s, 1940’s – 1950’s, 1960’s – 1970’s, and 1980’s – 1990’s
- Why is it important to understand this evolutionary process as discussed on page 24?
- Minimum of 300 word posting
Reply to the following post, 200 minimum each reply
One important happening in the evolution of community counseling that I’d like to bring up today is the impact of Carl Rogers’s Counseling Theory. In 1942, Carl Rogers introduced a book that he titled, Counseling and Psychotherapy. This book allowed counselors to understand person-centered theories and focused on specific techniques to build rapport with clients and to get the most out of sessions with them. During the 1940’s-1950’s, new challenges were being faced every day, it was the end of the great depression and veterans were returning from World War II. After Word War II, society was making a great change. Changes were being made with sex roles and especially for women beginning to join careers and make names for themselves rather than being a stay at home mother or any other titles that women had before. Many changes were taking place and understanding of people’s role in society needed to change. This is why Carl Rogers focused on person-centered therapy and understanding the client’s intrapsychic experiences rather than assuming their roles. Carl Rogers’s theories increased in popularity and more and more counselors were finding his theories to work best in the therapeutic setting.
During the 1940s and 1950s, the emphasis on individual and intrapsychic healing shifted many counselors’ attention away from the external factors
that affected their clients’ lives. Clients were able to work internally to understand their emotions from their own prespective rather than trying to find
meaning through environmental stressors. In the end, Carl Rogers shaped what we know about counseling today as we still use some of these methods
mentioned here, today. As a community counseling professional, Rogers had developed a unique ability to use his knowledge and experience to
promote social justice and healthy human development. We see this now with advocating for clients when they truly need the assistance.
The 1920s and 1930s would see counselors slowly increasingly their visibility and employment in diverse settings. This included the growing number of counselors employed as guidance workers in public school systems, student personnel workers in college and universities, job counselors hired in various government employment agencies, personnel workers in private business and industry settings, rehabilitation counselors in health clinics and hospitals, and testing and placement service providers for war veterans. The Great Depression influenced researchers and practitioners especially in university and vocational settings, to emphasize helping strategies and counseling methods that related to employment.
Four historic factors contributed greatly to the evolution of the counseling profession during the 1940s and 1950s. These factors included the impact of Carl Rogers’s counseling theory, new challenges counselors faced in addressing the needs of veterans returning from World War II, the effect that World War II had on changing traditional sex roles, especially as they related to women’s career and vocational development and major breakthroughs in the professionalization of counseling. The counseling profession in the 1960s faced a number of serious questions and challenges. One of these problems centered on clientele. Events in the 1960s, however, would blur this simple dichotomy by suddenly expanding counseling audiences to include minority groups, dissenters to the war in Vietnam, returning veterans, alienated hippie and youth movements, experimenters and advocates of the drug culture, disenchanted students in high schools and colleges, victims of urban and rural poverty and disenfranchised women. Counselors needed to use multifaceted approaches in their work. The Community Mental Health Centers Act of 1963 mandated the creation of more than 2,000 mental health centers nationwide. The passage of the Health Maintenance Organization Act of 1973 was a major factor that contributed to the boost in financial payments for mental health care services to privately operated MCOs at the time. Many counselors found solace from the growing sense of apathy, rootlessness, fear and despair that plagued much of the nation in the 1980s by embracing a myopic professional identity in their work. It seemed as though these counseling professionals found refuge from the controversies and revolutionary spirit of the 1960s and 1970s by embracing helping strategies that maintained the existing status quo. The National Board for Certified Counselors was formed in 1982 and began to certify counselors on a national level. in the 1990s, the Transformational School Counseling Initiative emphasizes the need for school counselors to expand their role and function beyong providing one to one counseling for students’ experiencing problems and fulfilling quasi-administrative responsibilities that occupy an inordinate amount of their time, energy and attention.
It is important to understand the evolutionary process because many students and practitioners are simply not aware of the various factors and people who have contributed to the development of the community counseling theory over an extended period of time. It is also important to clarify how the roots of the community counseling framework are historically grounded in intervention strategies that have been used to address different forms of inequality, injustice and oppression that adversely impacted millions of people in our society.