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ENG 241 Howard University Second Letter to the Spanish Crown by Charles V Discussion

ENG 241 Howard University Second Letter to the Spanish Crown by Charles V Discussion

Question Description

I’m working on a english multi-part question and need support to help me understand better.

You can find copies of the U.S. Constitution and the Declaration of Independence (Links to an external site.) at the National Archives website (Links to an external site.).

The National Archives is located on the Mall in Washington, DC. These original documents, as well as a the Articles of Confederation (which created the Continental Congress) and a copy of the English Magna Carta, are available for public viewing at this location.

Section 1  

Discussion #1: Exploration and Encounter

Directions

Before beginning your second discussion thread, Review the Discussion Board Expectations in the Syllabus under Course Grading.

(1) In this discussion, there are a number of Discussion Prompts listed below. You must respond to TWO of them.

  • Make your initial post before the Module is halfway over. (As always, please consult the course Calendar where the instructor will list specific due dates.)
  • Return before the Module closes and respond to at least two classmates’ posts, preferably on the same topics you chose. Continue the conversation with your fellow students.
  • Students are expected to read what other students have posted.
  • Students may reply to, or expand upon, points made by other students in the thread.

(2) To earn points:

  • All posts should average about two paragraphs minimum.  
  • All posts MUST be significant and substantial contributions that demonstrate your mastery of the readings. If you are not earning full points for discussions, then be sure to review the Instructor comments and the grading rubric.
  • Remember: a Literature class IS Reading and Discussion…there are no “right” answers to these questions!

GENERAL NOTE: remember…

  • Discussions are informal, personal responses based on your own reading of a text
  • Do not “research”websites or repeat the editor’s comments or copy/paste from any outside source: use your own brain
  • A Literature class IS Reading and Discussion…there are no “right” answers to these questions! 

Discussion #1 Prompts

Discussion Question #1

European Diversity

Generally, each of the European Nations viewed itself as a separate culture and a different race from the other Europeans, so the different nations had different motivations and different goals in the “New World.” In addition, each of the European nations is in competition with the other nations not only in the exploration of the “New World,” but also worldwide. During this period, European nations are frequently at war with each other, and they compete with each other economically too. In addition, the centuries long conflict with Islam, especially in Spain, France, Italy, and the Eastern European nations has influenced European attitudes, especially those of Spain and Portugal (two powerful early exploration empires). 

It is important to remember that the early settlements and later the colonies were controlled and directed by European powers FOR European interests, and that the early decisions on how to run these things were decided by European national policies. These conflicts immediately extended into the “New World.” Thus many of the initial conditions of “American” society were decided by Europeans interest. (Slavery, for instance, is not chosen by the colonists, it is imposed by European owners because it serves their interests.) 

Here are some questions to explore and reply to …

  • The Introduction in the Norton points out that early writers are writing for three primary purposes: what are these purposes? In what texts can we see clear examples these purposes?
  • What differences do you see in how different European writers see the new world, the natives, and even other Europeans? What elements of their writings reveal those attitudes?
  • What do the European have in common? What attitudes, habits or ideas do they share? Where can we see these similarities in the writings?
  • What was surprising to you in your reading? That is, what texts showed you something unanticipated or new, or different from what you thought you knew? Explain.

Discussion Question #2

Views of Nature

The early Explorers and the later Settlers were in awe of Nature as they encountered it in the “New World.” They saw it as a vast wilderness: challenging and exciting and dangerous, even while they sought to exploit it economically. The Puritans, however, looked at Nature a different way. Their “World View” perceived Nature through the lens of their Christian Faith and their historical experience. Europeans are just exiting the Middle Ages, and as America is discovered the Renaissance is going on in Europe. Western Civilization is beginning to explore and expand. 

The Native world view is different from Western Civilization’s basic outlook. Native Americans did not have a concept like “Nature,” rather, they simply “lived” in the world, and saw themselves as an equal part of the world they lived in. The differences between these two “world views,” the Native and the European, is the root of all the conflict between these two culture even into the modern day.

It is true that European society is focused on “controlling” Nature in some way; and it is true that Natives live more “in the moment” with Nature. But also remember these things: it is the desire/need to control Nature that leads to agriculture, medicine, Science, all technology, hot water, and everything we have today. Native societies were oriented to tradition and tribal custom, and thus did not advance technologically much in comparison to other human groups, so they did not have things like the wheel, roads, a full written language, and so on. 

When talking about the differences between these two groups and how they think and encounter the world, it is common today to condemn Western Culture and idealize Native culture. Students also are tempted to repeat the common generalizations of today as if they are true. Instead of just saying the trite responses of “Europeans are evil / Natives are good” that have become commonplace today, read the texts for yourself, and draw your own conclusions from what you read. 

Here are some question to explore and reply to …

  • Compare the Creation Stories briefly: what important similarities and differences do you see between the two narratives? What is the importance of a Creation story for a people?
  • How do Europeans view the world and their place in it, what in this class we call the “world view”?What readings do you think demonstrate this view the best? Why?
  • What is the importance of the Bible in European’s experience and thinking at this time? Why? How does this text help to shape not only European attitudes, but also European society? How does the European view shape the way they interact with Natives?
  • How doe Natives view the world and their place in it, their world view?  What readings do you think demonstrate this view the best? 
  • How does the Native World view influence the way they interact with the Europeans?
  • Native culture and literature is ORAL; European culture is WRITTEN. How dos this basic difference relate to this question?

Discussion Question #3

Subject, Purpose, and Audience: Read and Think for Yourself

It’s important that students approach the reading in this class with a broad mind, and that we look at each text critically. While it’s important to know a bit about the writer of a text, and to know about the historical period the text was produced in, ultimately, each reader must read the text independently, and each reader must learn to see what is actually in a text for themselves. Readers must learn to REASON from their own reading experience and draw their own conclusions about what those texts “mean.” In the larger construct of college study, deliberate practice in this intense, “close,” critical reading is an important and beneficial outcome for each reader. If we all read and reason well, then we should all come to the same basic set of ideas about a thing: what we call “consensus.” 

So we practice analyzing the text, not the Person who wrote it, and not History.  Practice this focus on this discussion thread! 

As well, in this class, don’t read “about” the text: read the text for yourself. What the Editor says about a text, or what  a website says about a text, is never as true as important as you own deliberate and mature opinion, based upon your own reading experience. Remember, these texts were not written to be explained by College Professors or websites. They were written for people just like you to read and think about and decide upon…for themselves.

For this Discussion: First begin by reviewing the terms in the Glossary and remember what you have learned about this in previous classes. Analyze the Subject, Purpose, and Audience of one of the writings on the Unit I list. Let’s discover these points and dig deeper into each text!

  1. For your first post to this thread, choose a writing from the Unit I reading list. This text must be one that was produced after Columbus’ arrival to the New World (Sorry: Genesis and Sermon on the Mount or City on a Hill are not allowed!).
  2. Then succinctly explain what you think the Subject, Purpose, and Audience of the work is. Refer to some specific evidence to support your analysis. The key is to analyze the text first, and THEN write a summary paragraph of what your analysis reveals.
  3. Be sure to begin with an appropriate signal phrase
  4. For your second post to this thread, visit other student analyses, read them and respond to at least one substantively. You might also read what other have posted to your own reply…and have a conversation

Section 2 

Module 1: Challenge Task #1

Start Assignment

  • Points 10
  • Submitting a file upload

Directions

From the readings assigned in Module 1, show an example of writing from a European writer’s description of the “new world” that reveals a specific attitude about Nature or the Wilderness.

First, begin with a signal phrase, correctly quote the example and give a correct in-text citation. Then, explain the quote and its context. Then state the attitude you believe this description illustrates. The language you choose should be significant, meaning that it clearly illustrates a particular idea or attitude.

Here is an example of language that shows a European Explorer’s attitude about nature:

In his “Voyages,” Champlain writes that “there were beautiful valleys and fields rich in corn such as I have eaten in that country, along with other products in abundance” (94).

Your response should be about 3-5 sentences.

To earn your points, you must complete all parts of the task in a Word document. Save. Then click “Submit Assignment” and attach. 

NOTE: If you don’t know what a signal phrase is, and how to use one, then you should refer to the index in your MLA Handbook. Also, you can find numerous explanations and examples online! Plus, it’s been highlighted.

You must complete Challenge Task #1 by the end of Module 1.

Rubric

Challenge Task Rubric

Challenge Task Rubric

CriteriaRatingsPts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeBasic Writing

3 to >0.0 pts

Range

0 pts

No Marks

3 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeDocumentation

3 to >0.0 pts

Range

0 pts

No Marks

3 pts

This criterion is linked to a Learning OutcomeContent

4 to >0.0 pts

Range

0 pts

No Marks

4 pts

Total Points: 10

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Section 3 

Module 1: Writing Assignment #1

Start Assignment

  • Points 20
  • Submitting a file upload

Directions

Compare the Subjects, Purposes, and Audiences of TWO works of literature listed on the syllabus in this module. The works you choose must be from different national cultures (you cannot compare two Spanish works, for instance). Your goal is to show the ways in which these two works are similar or different when it comes to the three points of comparison. Support your analysis with brief evidence taken directly from the texts you refer to. Be sure to name the texts and writers you select to analyze: use a signal phrase.

Remember: Subject, Purpose, and Audience are specific terms, and you should use these terms in your analysis (see the Glossary for a brief discussion of the terms).

Organize paragraphs with appropriate topic sentences, unity, and coherence. Support your analysis with brief evidence taken directly from the texts you refer to. Be sure to name the texts and writers you select to analyze: use a signal phrase. 

Special Note: Students may NOT select “Genesis” for this assignment.

Suggested writing plan for this response:

  • Paragraph #1: Analyze the S/P/A of Text A.
  • Paragraph #2: Analyze the S/P/A of Text B.
  • Paragraph #3: Draw conclusion/s by comparing A to B.

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