I’m working on a biology multi-part question and need support to help me study.
~~1. List whether you are positive or negative for each characteristic and include whether your phenotype for that characteristic is caused by dominant or recessive alleles. (6 points)
a. Blood group type (Is your blood group A, B, AB, or O?)
b. Rh factor
c. Widow’s peak
d. Free ear lobes
e. Tongue rolling
f. Hitchhiker’s thumb
g. Little finger bend
h. PTC taster
i. Mid-digit hair
j. Facial dimples
l. Cleft chin
~~2. If an individual knows only his own blood group type and but not his parent’s blood types, can he tell if his blood type genotype is heterozygous or homozygous? Explain for each possible human blood group. (5 points)
~~3. Create and label a Punnett square to determine the possibility of a couple having a color-blind child if the mother has the recessive trait on one X and the father has normal vision. [HINT: Use Xb to indicate an X with the color-blindness trait.] What are each the predicted offspring genotypes, and what is the predicted genotypic ratio? (4 points)
~~4. From your Question 3 Punnett square results, what percentage of female offspring will be color-blind? What percentage of male offspring will be color-blind? (2 points)
~~5. Explain the difference between a genetic disorder and a chromosomal disorder. (4 points)
~~6. Identify the sex and the chromosomal disorder, if applicable, of the following karyotype. (If there is no chromosomal disorder, please state that the karyotype was normal.) (6 points)
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~~7. Does a karyotype tell all of a person’s genetic characteristics? Explain. (5 points)
~~8. Why is a photograph of cells in metaphase utilized when constructing a karyotype? (4 points)
a. Genetically speaking, why is it important not to mate with a close relative? Explain. (3 points)
b. What types of disorders are increased by inbreeding? (2 points)
~~10. A friend has told you that Down Syndrome is associated with inbreeding. How would you clearly explain that this is not true (using specifics and details learned from the lab)? (5 points)
~~11. What does it mean to be a carrier of a genetic defective characteristic? When might it be important to know if one is a carrier? (5 points)
~~12. Using your results from the hemophilia procedure (from Procedures Step 1, part d.), answer the following questions for a population of 32 offspring (n = 32): (4 points)
a. What were the possible genotypes of the offspring?
b. Out of only the male offspring, what is the probability (percentage) of a male being afflicted with hemophilia out of only the male offspring?
c. How many females (what number of females) would be expected to have hemophilia out of the entire population of offspring?
d. How many carriers (what number of carriers) are expected to be produced out of the entire population? What sex are the carriers?
~~13. A student has a friend who is a Biologist, and the student is confused about her blood type. Her blood type is O, but her father has type A and her mother has type B. She asks her friend if it is possible for her parents to have a child with type O blood. What would be a clear and complete response the friend could give to answer her question? (4 points)
~~14. If a person were to have 14 children in a row, all female, what is the probability the next child would be a female? (2 points)
~~15. Explain why more males tend to suffer from X-linked disorders than females. (5 points)
~~16. Jamie has decided to breed rabbits. Her male rabbit is white, while her female rabbit is black. They produce a litter of black and white spotted rabbits. Assuming that coat color is controlled by only 1 gene, is this codominance or incomplete dominance? Justify your answer. (4 points)
~~17. In the sickle cell activity, what happened to the allele frequencies (the percentage of surviving alleles that were HbA and the percentage of surviving alleles that were HbS) over the course of the experiment? Why did this happen? (5 points)
~~18. Using the data from the sickle cell activity, will these percentages continue to change as they did in the first few generations? Explain which simulation parameters will control the allele frequency trends in this simulation. (5 points)
~~ 19. How might the information gained from this lab pertaining to Human Genetics be useful to you, or how can you apply this knowledge to your everyday life as a non-scientist? The application will be graded according to the rubric below. (20 points)