I’m working on a social science discussion question and need an explanation to help me study.
Please respond to Jacob with 250 words. Please provide an assessment of Jacobs answers ,and provide citations and references that jacob used
1-Explain why California’s natural population continues to increase so rapidly as compared with other states in the Union. Include information on birth and death rates, life expectancy and fertility rates.
The inception of California’s high natural population was the advent of the Gold Rush during the nineteenth century (Selby 268). This event caused people around the world to migrate to California in search of gold, resulting in highly concentrated populations (Selby 268). And over history, as people in the state spread out across it, population rates would continue to rise as if in an effort to make up the difference.
Fast-forwarding to the mid-twentieth century, the post-World War II baby boom left its stamp on California with the increased birth rate it signified (Selby 266). Natural increases to the population would decrease after this, only to pick up again during the 1980s. In the year 1980, there were 390,000 births in the state and 180,000 deaths, resulting in an increase in population of 210,000 (Selby 266). Compared to 1970’s 358,000 births and an increase of 193,000, the growth during the following decade is evident (Selby 266). Birth rates have since dropped to around 300,000 annually, which is still a lot, and goes to show the significance of the population increases of the mid-to-late-twentieth century (Selby 266).
California’s natality rates, or birth rates, are outpacing its mortality rates, with the both of them hovering around 12.4 and 6.7 per 1,000 in the population respectively (Selby 268). Fertility rates describe the amount of children born to each woman, and is based on birth rate for the given year (Selby 268). While variable, fertility rates have existed between 1.7 and 2.5 in California. 2.5 being the average world rate (Selby 268). Finally, Californian life expectancies surpass those of the national average. In 2011 it was 80.4 years, the third highest in the United States, and it has only continued to increase since (Selby 268).
3-How and why have the source regions of immigration into California shifted during the 20th Century?
Immigration in California was initially bolstered by the Gold Rush, with millions of people from European countries, Asian countries, and the Pacific Islands moving to the state (Selby 273). This group of people would flow in for the following decades, but when the twentieth century started to pick up, the primary source of immigration to California would change (Selby 273). At this point, people from Latin America would lead the stream of immigrants, as remains the case today (Selby 273). However, as the century was coming to a close, an increase of Asian immigrants would begin competing for that lead (Selby 273).
While the initial wave of immigrants arrived in the state due to the prospect of the Gold Rush, as things began to settle, foreign people came into the state for other reasons. Statistics on immigrant admission categories states that 72% of immigrants to California were family sponsored (Selby 274). The next biggest category, employment preferences, contained 15% of immigrants that year (Selby 274). Given the proximity of the state to Latin American countries such as Mexico, and the travel accessibility of the state relative to Asian countries, it would stand to reason that these people make up the vast majority of immigrants to California.
6- Identify some native American tribal cultures within southern California and describe their effect on state culture and economics.
Prior to the Spanish invasions that began in 1769, an estimated 300,000 Native Americans resided in California (Selby 263). There were many tribes among these, with most existing in clusters of 100 members. These people spanned many languages and areas of residence, yet they are known to have often traded resources among each other (Selby 263). Between the European diseases brought by the Spanish invaders and the influx of foreign peoples due to the Gold Rush, Native American population in the state was reduced greatly (Selby 264). The census in 1900 only counted 15,000 Native Americans in California (Selby 264).
An example of a surviving Native American tribe from California is the Karok, or Karuk, tribe. The Karuks resided along the Klamath River, centered at a village known as Katamin (Selby 303). A village lost to the culture upon the U.S. government’s scattering of its people (Selby 303). They were only recognized by the federal government in 1979, and by 1990 when the tribe was reorganized, only 10 fluent speakers of their language remained (Selby 303). They eventually recovered, reviving their customs and religious ceremonies successfully (Selby 303). For financial purposes, they began woodworking furniture, and started health centers and construction projects (Selby 303). These services have been a boon to local and surrounding communities, and have impacted the local economy in positive ways (Selby 303).
8-What impact has the Vietnam War had on immigration to California from southeast Asia? Describe how these groups have assimilated within California’s culture?
After the U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War, the 1970s and 1980s saw many Southeast Asian refugees immigrating to the United States (Selby 282). The majority of these people would find their way to California, clustering into what are now the two biggest Vietnamese communities within the United States (Selby 282). These communities being San Jose and Westminster, with populations comprising the bulk of the 582,000 Vietnamese people living in the state as of 2010 (Selby 282, 337).
Specifically, Little Saigon in Westminster houses the most Vietnamese people outside of Vietnam itself (Selby 337). This place would seemingly have been chosen due to the county it falls under, Orange County. The county had been known for its anti-Communist politics, which was attractive to Vietnamese refugees fleeing a Communist regime (Selby 337). Today, the area is energized and bustling with over 3,000 Vietnamese-owned businesses, producing soaps, food, herbal medicines, and much more (Selby 337).
Selby, William A. Rediscovering the Golden State: California Geography. 4th ed., Wiley, 2019.